Representing Clients in Trust, Estate, and Probate matters
Close this search box.

No Contest Clause Disputes

Understanding No Contest Clauses in California

What is a No Contest Clause?

A no contest clause, often referred to as an in terrorem clause, is a provision within a will and/or trust document that aims to discourage beneficiaries from challenging or contesting the terms of the instrument. These clauses typically stipulate that if a beneficiary initiates legal action against the will or trust, they risk forfeiting their inheritance or facing other specified consequences.

Purpose of Trust No Contest Clauses

Protecting Testator's Intent:

People often include no contest clauses to ensure that their wishes, as outlined in their estate planning documents, are carried out without dispute.

Avoiding Costly Litigation:

By discouraging legal challenges, these clauses aim to minimize the potential for costly and time-consuming litigation.

Preserving Family Harmony:

Persons executing estate planning documents often use no contest clauses to maintain family harmony by discouraging beneficiaries from engaging in adversarial legal actions.

Enforceability in California

California law recognizes and enforces trust no contest clauses but imposes certain limitations to prevent them from being overly broad or oppressive. Probate Code Section 21311 delineates the only three (3) circumstances in which a no contest clause may be enforced in the state of California: (1) when a direct contest is brought without probable cause (Probate Code Section 21311(a)(1)), (2) when a pleading is filed challenging the transfer of property on grounds that it was not the transferor’s property at the time of the transfer, if the trust’s no contest clause expressly provides for this application (Probate Code Section 21311(a)(2)), and (3) when a creditor claim is filed and prosecuted, if the trust’s no contest clause expressly provides for this application (Probate Code Section 21311(a)(3)). Under the current statutory scheme, these are the only three (3) instances in which no contest clause may be enforced. Donkin v. Donkin (2013) 58 Cal.4th 412, 426.
The enforceability of no contest clauses may depend on factors such as:


Courts may assess the reasonableness of the no contest clause to ensure it does not unduly restrict a beneficiary's right to challenge under legitimate grounds.

Public Policy Considerations:

California law disfavors clauses that limit a beneficiary's ability to contest a trust on valid legal grounds.

How Estate Law California APC Can Help

Estate Law California APC has extensive experience navigating the complexities of trust no contest clauses in California. Estate Law California APC’s services include:


Assessing the validity and enforceability of no contest clauses in estate planning documents.

Litigation Representation:

Representing beneficiaries and fiduciaries in trust dispute litigation, ensuring their rights are protected under applicable laws.

If you have questions about no contest clauses or need assistance with trust-related matters, contact Estate Law California APC for a free telephone consultation. Trust in Estate Law California APC to provide strategic legal guidance tailored to your unique situation.
Scroll to Top